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Seafloor EM receiver
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Instruments | EM Receiver | Data Format

The following delineates how information and data are stored on both the MkII and MkIII data loggers. Prior to 2001 some or all data files are in 16 bit format; all data files after this are 24 bit. The data structure is designed for maximum flexibility, but many features are not currently used, specifically gain ranging and compression.

All data are stored in 512-byte blocks. The diagram below shows the basic architecture of the unformatted disk drive. Blocks 0-1 are not written by the instrument software and are reserved for "system overhead" as needed (yellow). Block 2 contains the "Disk Header" (orange) which includes information regarding the location of a "Directory" (blue) that tabulates the location of the data on the disk (green). In practice, the directory is on the order of a hundred blocks in size.

The structure of the Disk Header and Directory was designed with a number of features which are not being used at this time. Several terms need to be defined in order to understand the data structure. "Normal Data" refers to data acquired at the interrupt rate or at some small fraction thereof. "Slow Data" refers to data acquired at a very low sample rate (once or twice per hour) simultaneously with Normal Data acquisition. For example, data from the onboard compass tiltmeter are written as Slow Data. "Log Data" refers to additional information to be stored other than normal data and Slow Data.

The term "Time Tag" will be used below to describe time logged as follows:

 Byte no. Name Function
1-2 msecs milliseconds
3 secs second number
4 min minute number
5 hour hour number
6 day day number
7 month month number
8 year year number

The 16-bit versions of the code are NOT Y2K compliant, because they cannot be set to year '00'. To solve this, 1972 is substituted for 2000, as it is also a leap year and pre-dates the existence of the loggers.


The disk header in block number 2 has the following structure:

 Byte no's. Name Function
1-4 write_block Block no. for next normal data write
5-6 write_byte Byte number in write_block for next data write (always 00)
7-12 read_block, read_byte not used
13-16 dir-start Block no. where directory starts
17-20 dir_size No. of blocks in directory allocation
21-24 dir_block Block no. for next directory entry
25-28 dir_count No. of next directory entriy in current block
29-44 Slow data information (not used)
45-60   Log data information (not used)
61-64 data_start Block number at which normal data starts
65-66 disk_number Number of disk in 2-drive instrument (usually 00)
67-76 soft_version Software version number used to acquire data
77-156 description Experiment description as entered by user at startup time
157-158 sample_rate Sample rate of normal data
159-160 start_chan Channel number of first normal data on disk (usually 00)
161-162 num_channel Number of channels being recorded
163-168 Slow data information (not used)
169-170 data_type 0=16-bit; 1=compressed 16-bit; 2=24-bit; 3=comp. 24-bit
171-172 disk_size Capacity of disk drive installed in instrument
173-174 ram_disk_size Capacity of PCMCIA RAM data buffer
175-512 not used


Each directory entry corresponds to one "record" or RAM buffer full of data written to disk. The structure of each directory entry is:

 Byte no.'s Name Function
1-8 start_time Time of first data sample in record (see time tag structure above)
9-12 blk_number Block number for location of first sample
13-16 rec_length not used
17-18 sample_rate Sample rate for normal data
19-20 num_blocks Number of blocks in this record
21 block_flag 8-bit status code: see below
22 mux_chan 8-bit code: see below
23-32 spare not used



Bits in block_flag and mux_chan are as follows:

Bit no. Function
7 (MSB)
0 = data in this block are for one channel only
mux_chan 4 LSBs = channel number for this block
mux_chan 4 MSBs = pre-amp gain code (0000 if VGP not used)
1 = data are multiplexed within the block
mux_chan = number of channels multiplexed in block
0 = block is a data block
1 = block is a status block
0 = normal data
1 = 24-bit data
0 = normal data
1 = compressed data
0 = normal data
1 = data with variable gain preamp (VGP) and automatic gain ranging (AGC)
0 = normal data
1 = a time tare has occurred
1 not used
0 (LSB)
not used (=1)


The Marine EM Lab has only collected 16 and 24 bit uncompressed data, but in the OBS Lab has collected other types of data, which are mentioned here for completeness:

A) 16-bit, uncompressed data.

B) 16-bit data with variable gain preamp (VGP) and automatic gain ranging (AGC).

C) 'WHALES' data, a one-off experiment using 16-bit, compressed, windowed, 4kHz sampling.

D) 24-bit, uncompressed data.

E) 24-bit, compressed data. (This feature is not yet implemented)

The basic data format is a 12-byte header at the beginning of each 512-byte block, followed by 2 bytes ('compression bytes') indicating the type of data and the number of samples in the following bytes. For uncompressed data, the rest of the block is simple data. For compressed data, there may be repeated groups of 2 compression bytes followed by data.

For uncompressed, non-VGP/AGC 16-bit data (type A), each disk block has 14 bytes of header plus compression bytes, followed by 498 bytes of data stored in 2's complement, 2-byte integers (byte ordering is correct of Macintosh and Unix machines; bytes must be swapped for Wintel machines). That is, a total of 249 2-byte data.

For uncompressed 24-bit data, each disk block has 14-bytes of header and compression bytes followed by 498 bytes of data stored in 2's complement, 2-byte integers (byte ordering is correct of Macintosh and Unix machines; bytes must be swapped for Wintel machines). That is, a total of 166 3-byte data.

For compressed, and/or VGP/AGC data, the 12-byte block header is followed by information about compression and gain ranging in byte 13, followed by the number of data in byte 14. If the block is not filled, then the data chunk is followed by 2 more 'compression' bytes with new preamp/gain ranging codes and number of samples, followed by that number of samples again, etc. The data chunk starts with a single uncompressed datum followed by 8-bit or 16-bit first differences.

Data are block multiplexed. The status codes in the block header document the channel number for each block.


The header structure is as follows:

 Byte no.'s Name Function
1-8 start time Time of first data sample in block (see time tag format)
9 block_flag 8-bit status code (see status codes)
10 mux_chan multiplex code (see status codes)
11-12 num_samples Binary number describing number of samples in block (not set)
13  ?? variable gain preamp and gain ranging codes (see below)
14  ?? number of samples in next chunk of data

Byte 13 in block headers for gain ranged data:

 bit no.  Function
 7 (MSB)
0 = uncompressed data
1 = compressed data
0 = 8-bit differences stored for compressed data (16 or 24 bit)
1 = 16-bit differences stored for compressed data (24 bit only)
0 = 16-bit data
1 = 24 bit data
4 unused
0-3 gain range code

Last updated: Wednesday, 06-May-2009 14:38:26 PDT
email: kkey@ucsd.edu