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Publications of the SIO Marine EM Laboratory

Listed by Subject

Ridge Exploration

Key, K. W., Application of broadband marine magnetotelluric exploration to a 3D salt structure and a fast-spreading ridge, Ph. D. Thesis, University of California, San Diego, 2003.

Key, K., and S. Constable, Broadband marine MT exploration of the East Pacific Rise at 9°50'N, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(22), 2054, doi:10.1029/2002GL016035, 2002.

MacGregor, L., M. Sinha, and S. Constable, Electrical resistivity structure of the Valu Fa Ridge, Lau Basin, from marine controlled-source electromagnetic sounding, Geophys. J. Int., 146, pp 217-236, 2001.

Heinson, G., S. Constable, and A. White, Episodic melt transport at mid-ocean ridges inferred from magnetotelluric sounding, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 2317-2320, 2000.

MacGregor, L.M., S. Constable, and M.C. Sinha, The RAMESSES Experiment III: Controlled source electromagnetic sounding of the Reykjanes Ridge at 57° 45' N, Geophys. J. Int., 135, pp. 773-789, 1998.

Sinha, M.C., S. Constable, C. Peirce, A. White, G. Heinson, L.M. MacGregor, and D.A. Navin, Magmatic processes at slow spreading ridges: Implications of the RAMESSES Experiment at 57° 45' North on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Geophys. J. Int.,135, pp. 731-745, 1998.

Constable, S., G. Heinson, G. Anderson, and A. White, Seafloor electromagnetic measurements above Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge, J. Geomag. Geolect., 49, pp. 1327-1342, 1997.

Sinha, M.C., D.A. Navin, L.M. MacGregor, S. Constable, C. Peirce, A. White, G. Heinson, and M.A. Inglis, Evidence for accumulated melt beneath the slow-spreading mid-Atlantic ridge, Phil. Trans. A, Roy. Soc., 355, pp. 233-253, 1996.

Heinson, G., S. Constable and A. White, Seafloor Magnetotelluric Sounding Above Axial Seamount, Geophys. R. Lett., 23, pp. 2275-2278, 1996.

Evans, R.L., M.C. Sinha, S.C. Constable, and M.J. Unsworth, On the electrical nature of the axial melt zone at 13°N on the East Pacific Rise, J. Geophys. Res., 99, pp. 577-587, 1994.

Evans, R.L., S.C. Constable, M.C. Sinha, and C.S. Cox, Upper crustal resistivity structure of the East Pacific Rise near 13°N, Geophys. Res. Lett., 18, pp. 1917-1920, 1991.

Petroleum Exploration

Key, K. W., Application of broadband marine magnetotelluric exploration to a 3D salt structure and a fast-spreading ridge, Ph. D. Thesis, University of California, San Diego, 2003.

Ellingsrud, S., T. Eidsmo, S. Johansen, M.C. Sinha, L.M. MacGregor, and S. Constable, Remote sensing of hydrocarbon layers by seabed logging (SBL): Results from a cruise offshore Angola, The Leading Edge, 21, 972-982, 2002.

Eidsmo, T., S. Ellingsrud, L.M. MacGregor, S. Constable, M.C. Sinha, S. Johansen, F.N. Kong, and H. Westerdahl, Sea bed logging (SBL), a new method for remote and direct identification of hydrocarbon filled layers in deepwater areas, First Break, 20, 144-152, 2002.

Hoversten, G.M, S.C. Constable, and H.F. Morrision, Marine magnetotellurics for base-of-salt mapping: Gulf of Mexico field test at the Gemini structure, Geophysics, 65, pp. 1476-1488, 2000.

Constable, S., A. Orange, G.M. Hoversten, and H.F. Morrison, Marine magnetellurics for petroleum exploration Part 1. A seafloor instrument system, Geophysics, 63, pp. 816-825, 1998.

Hoversten, G.M., H.F. Morrison and S. Constable, Marine magnetellurics for petroleum exploration Part 2. Numerical analysis of subsalt resolution, Geophysics, 63, pp. 826-840, 1998.

Deep Ocean Studies

Behrens, J. P., The Detection of Electrical Anisotropy in 35 Ma Pacific Lithosphere: Results from a Marine Controlled-Source Electromagnetic Survey and Implications for Hydration of the Upper Mantle , Ph. D. Thesis, University of California, San Diego, 2005. PDF, 29.7 MB.

Constable, S., and C.S. Cox, Marine controlled source electromagnetic sounding 2. The PEGASUS experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 101, pp. 5519-5530, 1996.

Heinson, G., S. Constable and A. White, The Electrical Conductivity of the Lithosphere and Asthenosphere beneath the Coastline of Southern California, Bull. Aust. Soc. Explor. Geophys., 24, pp. 195-200, 1993.

Cox, C.S., S.C. Constable, A.D. Chave, and S.C. Webb, Controlled source electromagnetic sounding of the oceanic lithosphere, Nature, 320, pp. 52-54, 1986.

Global Studies

Constable, S., and C. Constable, Observing geomagnetic induction in magnetic satellite measurements and associated implications for mantle conductivity, Geochem. Geophys. Geosys., 5, No. 1, Q01006 DOI 10.1029/2003GC000634, 2004.

Korte, M., S.C. Constable, and C.G. Constable, Separation of external magnetic signal for induction studies, in First CHAMP Mission Results for Gravity, Magnetic and Atmospheric Studies, C. Reigber, H. Lühr, and P. Schwintzer (ed.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 315-320, 2003.

Everett,M.E., S. Constable, and C.G. Constable, Effects of near-surface conductance on global satellite induction responses, Geophys. J. Int., 153, 277-286, 2003.

Fullekrug, M., and S. Constable, Global triangulation of intense lightning discharges, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 333-336, 2000.

Petersons, H.F., and S. Constable, Global mapping of the electrically conductive lower mantle, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, pp. 1461-1464, 1996.

Inversion and Modeling

de Groot-Hedlin, C., and S. Constable, Inversion of magnetotelluric data for 2D structure with sharp resistivity contrasts, Geophysics, 69, 78–86, 2004.

Everett, M., and S. Constable, Electric dipole fields over an anisotropic seafloor: theory and application to the structure of 40 Ma Pacific Ocean lithosphere, Geophys. J. Int., 136, pp. 41-56, 1999.

Flosadottir, A.H. and S. Constable, Marine controlled source electromagnetic sounding 1. Modeling and experimental design, J. Geophys. Res., 101, pp. 5507-5517, 1996.

deGroot-Hedlin, C. and S. Constable, Occam's inversion and the North American Central Plains electrical anomaly, J. Geomag. Geoelect., 45, pp. 985-1000, 1993.

deGroot-Hedlin, C. and S.C. Constable, Occam's inversion to generate smooth, two-dimensional models from magnetotelluric data, Geophysics, 55, pp. 1613-1624, 1990.

Constable, S.C., Comment on `Magnetotelluric appraisalusing simulated annealing' by Dosso and Oldenburg, Geophys. J. Int., 106, pp. 387-388, 1991.

Constable, S.C., R.L. Parker, and C.G. Constable, Occam's Inversion: a practical algorithm for generating smooth models from EM sounding data, Geophysics, 52, pp. 289-300, 1987.

Electrical Conductivity

Constable, S., and A. Duba, Diffusion and mobility of electrically conducting defects in olivine, Phys. Chem. Min., 29, 446-454,2002.

Constable, S., and J.J. Roberts, Simultaneous Modeling of Thermopower and Electrical Conduction in Olivine, Phys. Chem. Min., 24, pp. 319-325, 1997.

Constable, S.C., Conduction by mantle hydrogen, Nature, 362, p. 704, 1993

Constable, S.C., and G. Heinson, In defense of a resistive oceanic upper mantle: reply to a comment by Tarits, Chave and Schultz, Geophys. J. Int., 114, pp. 717-723, 1993.

Constable, S.C., Constraints on mantle electrical conductivity from field and laboratory measurements, J. Geomag. Geoelect., 45, pp. 707-728, 1993.

Duba, A, and S.C.Constable, The electrical conductivity of a lherzolite, J. Geophys. Res., 98, pp. 11885-11899, 1993.

Constable, S.C., Shankland, T.J. and Duba, A., The electrical conductivity of an isotropic olivine mantle, J. Geophys. Res., 97, pp. 3397-3404, 1992.

Heinson, G. and Constable, S.C., The electrical conductivity of the oceanic upper mantle, Geophys. J. Int., 110, pp. 159-179, 1992.

Constable, S.C. and A. Duba, The electrical conductivity of olivine, a dunite, and the mantle, J. Geophys. Res., 95, pp. 6967-6978, 1990.


Heinson, G., A. White, S. Constable, and K. Key, Marine self potential exploration. Exploration Geophysics, 30, 1-4, 1999.

Tolstoy, M., S. Constable, J. Orcutt, H. Staudigel, F.K. Wyatt, and G. Anderson, Short and long baseline tiltmeter measurements on Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 108, pp. 129-141, 1998.

Anderson, G., S. Constable, H. Staudigel, and F.K. Wyatt, A seafloor long baseline tiltmeter, J. Geophys. Res., 102, pp. 20269-20285, 1997.

Webb, S.C., S.C. Constable, C.S. Cox, and T.K. Deaton, A seafloor electric field instrument, Geomag. Geoelectr., 37, pp. 1115-1129, 1985.

Review Papers

Chave, A.D., S.C. Constable, and R.N. Edwards, Electrical exploration methods for the seafloor, in Electromagnetic Methods in Applied Geophysics, Volume 2, M. Nabighian (ed), Soc. Explor. Geophys., Tulsa., pp. 931-966, 1991.

Constable, S.C., Marine electromagnetic induction studies, Surv. Geophys., 11, pp. 303-327, 1990.


Constable, S.C., Electrical studies of the Australian lithosphere, Geol. Soc. Aust. Spec. Publ., 17, pp. 121-140, 1992.

Webb, S.C. and S.C. Constable, Microseism propagation between two sites on the deep sea floor, Bull. Seis. Soc. Am., 76, pp. 1433-1445, 1986.

Constable, S.C., Resistivity studies over the Flinders conductivity anomaly, South Australia, Geophys. J. Roy. astr. Soc., 83, pp. 775-786, 1985.

Constable, S.C., M.W. McElhinny, and P.L. McFadden, Deep Schlumberger sounding and the crustal resistivity structure of central Australia, Geophys. J. Roy. astr. Soc., 79, pp. 893-910, 1984.

McFadden, P.C. and S.C. Constable, 1983: The estimation and removal of a linear drift from stacked data, J. Geophys., 53, pp. 52-58.

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email: sconstable@ucsd.edu